Biomass Products


Solid Biomass

Biomass fuels, including wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugar cane, and many other byproducts from a variety of agricultural processes, continue to be a major source of energy in much of the developing world.  There are many who advocate the use of biomass for energy as it is readily available, whereas fossil fuels, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, take millions of years to form in the Earth and are finite and subject to depletion as they are consumed. Biomass can be burned directly or processed into biofuels such as ethanol and methane.

  • STC develops sustainable sources of biomass fuel feedstocks that can generate electrical power and heat and steam for rural industries such as agricultural crop drying, salt production, and brick and tile manufacture.
  • Our products are developed using assessment and certification schemes such as the Cramer Commission Standards for Sustainable Biomass from the Netherlands, the European Union Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and Rainforest Alliance and/or Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification.
  • STC focuses on locally produced agricultural byproducts, tree prunings, and crop residues in order to prevent excessive tree felling, deforestation, and watershed destruction. We work holistically with local communities to develop cost-effective supply chains for biomass production, processing, and distribution.

Biomass Products:

Palm Oil Kernel Shells (POKS)

Palm kernal shells

Palm Oil Kernel Shells (POKS) are a byproduct of large scale palm oil mills from cracking the palm kernel nuts before expelling Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). They are a very versatile solid biomass fuel, which can be used in a number of energy devices, including boilers, power plants, dryers, and gasification units.  Formerly a waste product, currently most mills use a portion of the shells along with most of the mesocarpal fiber (MCF) as primary fuels to produce steam and generate electrical power. POKS constitute about 5% of the total mass balance of processing the fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and have a calorific content of 4,000-4,500 kcal/kg.  Indonesia produces over million tons of POKS a year, which could provide adequate fuel for over 1,000 megawatts of power plant capacity.


Candlenut Shells

candle nut shell
Candlenut (Aleurites molucanna) is a common agroforestry tree species found throughout Indonesia and the Asia Pacific region.  Known as kemiri throughout Indonesia, it is an important fast-growing species for afforestation, watershed protection, and livelihood provision to local farmers.  The tree produces an oilseed with about 50% oil content, distributed within a thick shell that constitutes about 70% of the weight and an edible nut with about 30% of the weight.  The name is derived from the fact that the nuts can ignite and burn for an extended period like candles.  On a national scale, about 230,000 hectares are planted with candlenut, producing about 96,000 tons of raw candlenuts and 225,000 tons of candlenut shells.  The major products with economic value include the raw nuts as a food condiment, the oil as an emollient in personal care products and as a biofuel for lighting and heating, and the solid biomass as a fuel for rural industries in raw or carbonized form.